This article covers the basic concept of what UDP port is used for IKE traffic from VPN client to server.
Checkout this video:
UDP port 500 is used for IKE traffic from a VPN client to server.
What is UDP?
UDP is a connectionless protocol that runs on top of IP. UDP is often used for real-time applications such as video conferencing and gaming. IKE traffic from VPN client to server uses UDP port 500.
User Datagram Protocol
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol that offers a limited amount of service when messages are exchanged between computers in a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP).
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
UDP is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. The suite is the set of transport and link protocols that form the core of the Internet. It includes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), among others.
UDP is a simple transport layer protocol. It provides a connectionless service, which means that it does not guarantee delivery of data. In other words, UDP does not establish a virtual circuit between two devices before sending data. This makes UDP suitable for applications that do not require guaranteed delivery, such as streaming audio and video.
UDP is a best-effort protocol, which means that it makes no guarantees about delivery or order of delivery. Data may be lost or delivered out of order. UDP is therefore said to be unreliable.
UDP uses a process called connectionless multiplexing, which allows multiple applications to share a single connection. UDP does this by assigning each application its own port number. When data arrives at the UDP port, it is delivered to the correct application based on the port number.
UDP is a lightweight protocol that has very low overhead. It does not establish connections, so it can start sending data immediately (unlike TCP). UDP is often used for real-time applications such as audio and video streaming, where data must be received in real time and losing some data is acceptable.
What is IKE?
IKE is a key exchange protocol that is used to set up a secure connection between two devices. It uses the UDP port 500 and is typically used in VPN connections. IKE is responsible for creating and exchanging the keys that are used to encrypt and decrypt the data that is sent over the VPN connection.
Internet Key Exchange
Internet Key Exchange (IKE) is the protocol used to set up a security association (SA) between two devices. It can be used with the IPsec protocol to secure data communications. IKE uses UDP port 500 and is often referred to as ISAKMP/IKE phase 1.
VPN Client to Server
IKE uses UDP port 500 and transmits data in clear text, making it vulnerable to sniffing. IKE uses the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm to generate shared session keys. This algorithm uses a finite field and modular arithmetic to generate keys. The IKE phase 1 negotiation process produces two shared keys, an encryption key, and a hashing key. The encryption key is used to encrypt all phase 2 traffic. The hashing key is used to provide message integrity by providing a hash value for each message.
In conclusion, IKE traffic from VPN Client to Server uses UDP port 500.